22 EARLY LIFE. how useless it would be to attempt to expel the Amer­icans from our waters. They knew also that the motive of the Americans was entirely peaceful, and agreed with them to open a few ports for commerce. This very treaty with the Americans was soon fol­lowed by treaties with some European powers. But the action of the Shogun's counselors offended these impetuous princes. All sorts of charges were brought upon his government. He was called by them a coward, a slave to the foreign barbarians, etc. The party spirit was soon kindled. The leading princes of Kyiishii and Shikoku islands leagued together and rose up against him. They sent out a number of their spirited young samurai all over the country to stir up the hatred of the people against the misgovernment of the Shogun, and also against the foreign nations. The cry to restore the imperial reign and expel the foreign barbarians then became almost universal. It was indeed the starting-point of our late revolution, which happily resulted in the restoration of the impe­rial reign, and also in the freer opening of the foreign intercourse, instead of expelling foreigners from our shores. " I must not forget to mention something of my prince in connection with this extraordinary period of our national history. He was quite accomplished in Chinese classics, and was well known in the country as the finest scholar among the princes. He was a man of far sight, and quite fixed in his purposP.. About five or six years before the American fleet ap­peared in our waters, this prince, who spent most of his time in his own secluded palace, perceived that the military system of the country must be improved, and the people must be better educated and well informed.