272 TO EUROPE AND AMERICA AGAIN. of the present emperor. Those proud minds which had fought for the cause of the Mikado and had also determined to shut out foreigners from the coast, sud­denly changed their views and turned out to be the most zealous advocates of western civilization. The anti-foreign spirit, which might have been a great bal'l'ier to progress, was crushed out by those strong hands. The affairs of the country began to be con­ducted on quite a different basis. Zealous, talented, and far-sighted patriots were appointed by the em­peror to administer the nation's affairs. A cabinet was formed, and eight ministers appointed. All the feudal daimio gave up their possessions to the govern­ment for the common good of the nation. Their re­tainers, the proud samurai, were ordered to lay aside their swords. The etta, the outcast of society, were permitted to be numbered among the people. The military system of European nations was at once in­troduced. War vessels were built and purchased, dockyards were constructed. .An active competition arose between native and foreign steamship compa­nies. Post-offices were everywhere established, and telegraph wires were stretched throughout the country. The public schools were constantly improved. Tun­nels were cut and railways were built to connect im­portant commercial centres. The streets of Tokyo began to be lighted by gas lamps, and foreign car­riages ran in its thoroughfares. An American tram­way was laid out in the capital. Many banks were organized on the European model. Chambers of commerce and houses of exchange were also started in several important cities. A police system was carefully wrought out and is well managed. Courts of justice were erected in the large towns, and the