240 MISSIO_VARY WORK IN JAPAN. then is our civilization so different? It is certain also that we have few men of earnest purpose. Hence the necessity for universities. 'Ve can learn from the example of Europe. In the sixteenth century, Luther, the great reformer, said: 'Parents who l'e· fuse to send their children to Rchool are enemies of the state and should be punished.' Fichte, the German philosopher, said: ' The reason why Germany stands in the front of European civilization is found in the power emanating from her universities.' The twelfth century was the dawn of civilization in Europe. Greek philosophy was then studied in the University of Paris and Roman law in the University o£ Bologna. Before the year 1600 the universities of Oxford and Cambridge had been founded in England, those of Edinburgh and Glasgow in Scotland, of Prague, Heidelberg, Leipzic, Tubingen, and Jena, in Ger· many. Universities have also been established in Holland, Spain, Portugal, and Austria. Abelard, Roger Bacon, Kepler, Galileo, Lord Bacon, Locke, Newton, Milton, Leibnitz, Kant, Reid, and Hamil· ton, were famous as great scholars in those countries. Pym, Hampden, Pitt, Fox, Burke, Johnson, Wycliffe, Luther, Calvin, and Knox, were reformers in politics and religion. Through the influence of these univer· sities philosophy and science advanced, despotism and feudalism were checked and destroyed, the power of priest and noble resisted, the desire for liberty and self.government kindled. The Reformation and the English Revolution changed the condition of Europe. In 1800 there were over one hundred universities in Europe, and that the march of civilization has been hastened by their influence is an indisputable fact. Look also at the colleges and universities of America,