OCCUPATION OF KYOTO. 195 1873, been set at liberty and allowed to return to their homes. At Osaka, Mr. Neesima obtained the prom­ise of 6,000 yen from a native merchant, but the gov­ernor, while sanctioning the establishment of a school, would not permit the employment of missionaries as teachers. Discouraged by the result of his efforts in Osaka, Mr. Neesima's eyes turned towards the sacred city of Kyoto, and the Mission reluctantly consented to the location of the school at that place, provided the necessary authority should be granted. Mr. Nee­sima was at this time contending not only with the opposition of the authorities, but also with that of the Mission itself. It was of course impossible for its members to conform to the condition of the government which required them to abandon their distinctive work as preachers of the gospel in becoming teachers in a Japanese school. Their thought, too, was naturally centred on a theological training-school for the educa­tion of native evangelists, while Mr. Neesima was convinced that nothing less than a broad collegiate course would win the sympathy of the class he wished to reach. In March, 187 5, he writes:-"I fully be­lieve we shall not prosper in our work unless we have a collegiate institution in addition to a training-school. I begged for this at the last meeting of the Board. But the Mission wishes to use the fund for a training­school only. I am willing to agree to this if only they will teach anything to satisfy the craving desire of our youth for knowledge. If we simply teach theology and the Bible I fear the best Japanese youth will not stay with us. They want modern science also." Moreover, Mr. Neesima's plan for the occupation of Kyoto was judged premature and chimerical by many of his associates. Until the removal of the cap-